Preferential infection and depletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis–specific CD4 T cells after HIV-1 infection

Christof Geldmacher, Njabulo Ngwenyama, Alexandra Schuetz, Constantinos Petrovas, Klaus Reither, Edwin J. Heeregrave, Joseph P. Casazza, David R. Ambrozak, Mark Louder, William Ampofo, Georgios Pollakis, Brenna Hill, Erica Sanga, Elmar Saathoff, Leonard Maboko, Mario Roederer, William A. Paxton, Michael Hoelscher, Richard A. Koup

HIV-1 infection results in the progressive loss of CD4 T cells. In this study, we address how different pathogen-specific CD4 T cells are affected by HIV infection and the cellular parameters involved. We found striking differences in the depletion rates between CD4 T cells to two common opportunistic pathogens, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). CMV-specific CD4 T cells persisted after HIV infection, whereas MTB-specific CD4 T cells were depleted rapidly. CMV-specific CD4 T cells expressed a mature phenotype and produced very little IL-2, but large amounts of MIP-1β. In contrast, MTB-specific CD4 T cells were less mature, and most produced IL-2 but not MIP-1β. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B–stimulated IL-2–producing cells were more susceptible to HIV..........

Published at:  2010-11-29

Class I HLA-A*7401 Is Associated with Protection from HIV-1 Acquisition and Disease Progression in Mbeya, Tanzania

Rebecca N. Koehler, Anne M. Walsh, Elmar Saathoff, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Miguel A. Arroyo, Jeffrey R. Currier, Leonard Maboko, Michael Hoelsher, Merlin L. Robb, Nelson L. Michael, Francine E. McCutchan, Jerome H. Kim, Gustavo H. Kijak

Here we explore associations between HLA variation and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and disease progression in a community cohort in Mbeya, Tanzania, a region that, despite harboring high rates of HIV- 1 infection, remains understudied. African-specific allele HLA-A*74:01 was associated with decreased risk of infection (odds ratio [OR], 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–0.80; P = .011) and with protection from ..........

Published at:  2010-11-15

Electronic-Nose Technology Using Sputum Samples in Diagnosis of Patients with Tuberculosis

Authors: Arend Kolk, Michael Hoelscher, Leonard Maboko, Jutta Jung, Sjoukje Kuijper, Michael Cauchi, Conrad Bessant, Stella van Beers, Ritaban Dutta, Tim Gibson, Klaus Reither

We investigated the potential of two different electronic noses (EN; code named “Rob” and “Walter”) to differentiate between sputum headspace samples from tuberculosis (TB) patients and non-TB patients. Only samples from Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN)- and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive (TBPOS) sputum samples and ZN- and culture-negative (TBNEG) samples were used for headspace.......

Published at:  2010-11-01

Viral and host factors associated with the HIV-1 viral load setpoint in adults from Mbeya Region, Tanzania

Elmar Saathoff, PhD,a,* Michael Pritsch, MD,a,* Christof Geldmacher, PhD,a Rebecca N. Koehler, PhD,b,c Leonard Maboko, MD, PhD,d Lucas Maganga, MD,d Steffen Geis, MD, PhD,a,d Francine E. McCutchan, PhD,b,c Gustavo H. Kijak, PhD,b,c Jerome H. Kim, MD,b,e Miguel A. Arroyo, PhD,b,f Martina Gerhardt, PhD,a,d Sodsai Tovanabutra, PhD,b,c Merlin L. Robb, MD,b,c Carolyn Williamson, PhD,g Nelson L. Michael, MD, PhD,b,e and Michael Hoelscher, MD, PhDa

The viral load setpoint (VLS) is an important predictor of HIV disease progression, but there is a lack of information regarding the VLS and its possible determinants in African populations.

Published at:  2010-07-01

A Phase 1/2 Study of a Multiclade HIV-1 DNA Plasmid Prime and Recombinant Adenovirus Serotype 5 Boost Vaccine in HIV-Uninfected East Africans (RV 172)

Hannah Kibuuka, Robert Kimutai, Leonard Maboko, Fred Sawe, Mirjam S. Schunk, Arne Kroidl, Douglas Shaffer, Leigh Anne Eller, Rukia Kibaya, Michael A. Eller, Karin B. Schindler, Alexandra Schuetz, Monica Millard, Jason Kroll, Len Dally, Michael Hoelscher, Robert Bailer, Josephine H. Cox, Mary Marovich, Deborah L. Birx, Barney Graham, Nelson L. Michael, Mark S. de Souza, Merlin L. Robb

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine development remains a global priority. We describe the safety and immunogenicity of a multiclade DNA vaccine prime with a replication-defective recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) boost......

Published at:  2010-02-15

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