High Seroprevalence for Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae, Is Associated with Higher Temperatures and Rural Environment in Mbeya Region, Southwestern Tanzania

Norbert Heinrich ,Tatjana Dill ,Gerhard Dobler,Petra Clowes,Inge Kroidl,Mandy Starke,Nyanda Elias Ntinginya,Leonard Maboko,Thomas Löscher,Michael Hoelscher,Elmar Saathoff

Rickettsioses are endemic in sub-Sahara Africa. Burden of disease, risk factors and transmission are hitherto sparsely described.

Published at:  2015-04-07

Early phase evaluation of SQ109 alone and in combination with rifampicin in pulmonary TB patients

Norbert Heinrich, Rodney Dawson, Jeannine du Bois, Kim Narunsky, Gary Horwith, Andrew J. Phipps, Carol A. Nacy, Rob E. Aarnoutse, Martin J. Boeree, Stephen H. Gillespie, Amour Venter, Sonja Henne, Andrea Rachow, Patrick P. J. Phillips, Michael Hoelscher, Andreas H. Diacon, on behalf of the Pan African Consortium for the Evaluation of Antituberculosis Antibiotics (PanACEA) on behalf of the Pan African Consortium for the Evaluation of Antituberculosis Antibiotics (PanACEA), Anna Maria Mekota, Norbert Heinrich, Andrea Rachow, Elmar Saathoff, Michael Hoelscher, Stephen Gillespie, Angela Colbers, Georgette Plemper van Balen, Rob Aarnoutse, Martin Boeree, Anna Bateson, Timothy McHugh, Kasha Singh, Robert Hunt, Alimuddin Zumla, Andrew Nunn, Patrick Phillips, Sunita Rehal, Rodney Dawson, Kim Narunsky, Andreas Diacon, Jeannine du Bois, Amour Venter, Sven Friedrich, Ian Sanne, Karla Mellet, Gavin Churchyard, Salome Charalambous, Peter Mwaba, Nyanda Elias, Chacha Mangu, Gabriel Rojas-Ponce, Bariki Mtafya, Leonard Maboko, Lilian Tina Minja, Mohamed Sasamalo, Klaus Reither, Levan Jugheli, Noel Sam, Gibson Kibiki, Hadija Semvua, Stellah Mpagama, Abraham Alabi, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Evans Amukoye, Alphonse Okwera

SQ109, an asymmetrical diamine, is a novel anti-TB drug candidate. This first study in patients was done to determine safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and bacteriological effect of different doses of SQ109 alone and in combination with rifampicin when administered over 14 days.

Published at:  2015-01-27

Assessment of the novel T-cell activation marker–tuberculosis assay for diagnosis of active tuberculosis in children: a prospective proof-of-concept study

Authors: Damien Portevin PhD a b, Felicien Moukambi MSc c d, Petra Clowes MD c d, Asli Bauer PhD c d, Mkunde Chachage PhD c, Nyanda E Ntinginya MD c, Elirehema Mfinanga MD f, Khadija Said MD f, Frederick Haraka MD f, Andrea Rachow MD d e, Elmar Saathoff PhD d e, Maximilian Mpina MSc f, Levan Jugheli PhD a b f, Fred Lwilla PhD f, Prof Ben J Marais FCPaed g, Prof Michael Hoelscher FRCP d e, Prof Claudia Daubenberger DVM a b, Dr Klaus Reither MD a b f †, Dr Christof Geldmacher PhD d e

The diagnosis of paediatric tuberculosis is complicated by non-specific symptoms, difficult specimen collection, and the paucibacillary nature of the disease. We assessed the accuracy of a novel immunodiagnostic T-cell activation marker–tuberculosis (TAM-TB) assay in a proof-of-concept study to identify children with active tuberculosis.

Published at:  2014-10-15

Differential glycosylation of envelope gp120 is associated with differential recognition of HIV-1 by virus-specific antibodies and cell infection

Milan Raska, Lydie Czernekova, Zina Moldoveanu, Katerina Zachova, Matt C Elliott, Zdenek Novak, Stacy Hall, Michael Hoelscher, Leonard Maboko, Rhubell Brown, Phillip D Smith, Jiri Mestecky & Jan Novak

HIV-1 entry into host cells is mediated by interactions between the virus envelope glycoprotein (gp120/gp41) and host-cell receptors. N-glycans represent approximately 50% of the molecular mass of gp120 and serve as potential antigenic determinants and/or as a shield against immune recognition. We previously reported that N-glycosylation of recombinant gp120 varied, depending on the producer cells, and the glycosylation variability affected gp120 recognition by serum antibodies from persons infected with HIV-1 subtype B. However..........

Published at:  2014-08-01

Seroprevalence of Alphavirus Antibodies in a Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Tanzania Suggests Endemic Circulation of Chikungunya

Nina Weller ,Petra Clowes ,Gerhard Dobler,Elmar Saathoff,Inge Kroidl,Nyanda Elias Ntinginya,Leonard Maboko,Thomas Löscher,Michael Hoelscher,Norbert Heinrich

To date, Alphavirus infections and their most prominent member, chikungunya fever, a viral disease which first became apparent in Tanzania in 1953, have been very little investigated in regions without epidemic occurrence. Few data exist on burden of disease and socio-economic and environmental covariates disposing to infection.

Published at:  2014-07-31

Helminth-Associated Systemic Immune Activation and HIV Co-receptor Expression: Response to Albendazole/Praziquantel Treatment

Mkunde Chachage ,Lilli Podola,Petra Clowes,Anthony Nsojo,Asli Bauer,Onesmo Mgaya,Dickens Kowour,Guenter Froeschl,Leonard Maboko,Michael Hoelscher,Elmar Saathoff,Christof Geldmacher

It has been hypothesized that helminth infections increase HIV susceptibility by enhancing systemic immune activation and hence contribute to elevated HIV-1 transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.

Published at:  2014-03-27

Ascaris lumbricoides Infection and Its Relation to Environmental Factors in the Mbeya Region of Tanzania, a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

Steffen Andreas Schüle ,Petra Clowes,Inge Kroidl,Dickens O. Kowuor,Anthony Nsojo,Chacha Mangu,Helene Riess,Christof Geldmacher,Rüdiger Paul Laubender,Seif Mhina,Leonard Maboko,Thomas Löscher,Michael Hoelscher,Elmar Saathoff

With one quarter of the world population infected, the intestinal nematode Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common infectious agents, especially in the tropics and sub-tropics. Infection is caused by oral intake of eggs and can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. To identify high risk areas for intervention, it is necessary to understand the effects of climatic, environmental and socio-demographic conditions on A. lumbricoides infection.

Published at:  2014-03-18

Reasons for false-positive lipoarabinomannan ELISA results in a Tanzanian population

Inge Kroidl,Petra Clowes,Joshua Mwakyelu,Leonard Maboko,Abubakary Kiangi,Andrea Rachow,

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a cell wall component of mycobacteria, can be detected in the urine of tuberculosis (TB) patients. Advantages of this diagnostic include the ease of sample collection and test methods. However, as with most new TB diagnostics, LAM tests have been evaluated in well-controlled laboratory settings and subsequently need assessment under real working conditions. Our experience showed that the diagnosis........

Published at:  2013-11-25

Hookworm Infection and Environmental Factors in Mbeya Region, Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study

Helene Riess,Petra Clowes,Inge Kroidl,Dickens O. Kowuor,Anthony Nsojo,Chacha Mangu,Steffen A. Schüle,Ulrich Mansmann,Christof Geldmacher,Seif Mhina,Leonard Maboko,Michael Hoelscher,Elmar Saathoff

Hookworm disease is one of the most common infections and cause of a high disease burden in the tropics and subtropics. Remotely sensed ecological data and model-based geostatistics have been used recently to identify areas in need for hookworm control.

Published at:  2013-09-05

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