HPV Type Distribution in HIV Positive and Negative Women With or Without Cervical Dysplasia or Cancer in East Africa

Ruby Mcharo1 Tessa Lennemann1,2 John France3 Liseth Torres1 Mercè Garí4 Wilbert Mbuya1,2 Wolfram Mwalongo1 Anifrid Mahenge1 Asli Bauer1,2 Jonathan Mnkai1 Laura Glasmeyer2 Mona Judick2 Matilda Paul1 Nicolas Schroeder5 Bareke Msomba1 Magreth Sembo1 Nhamo Chiwerengo1 Michael Hoelscher2,6 Otto Geisenberger2,6 Ralph J. Lelle7 Elmar Saathoff2,6 Leonard Maboko1 Mkunde Chachage1,2,8 Arne Kroidl2,6† Christof Geldmacher2,6*†

Women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk to develop cervical cancer (CC), which is caused by persistent infection with 13 oncogenic human papilloma viruses (HR-HPVs). It is important to accurately identify and target HIV-positive women at highest risk to develop CC for early therapeutic intervention.

Published at:  2021-11-30

Altered Lipid Profiles and Vaccine Induced-Humoral Responses in Children Living With HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy in Tanzania

Authors: Wilbert Mbuya1*, Issakwisa Mwakyula2, Willyelimina Olomi1, Peter Agrea1, Francesco Nicoli3, Cecilia Ngatunga4, Leodegard Mujwahuzi2, Paul Mwanyika5 and Mkunde Chachage1,6*

People living with HIV, even under therapy, have a high burden of age-related co-morbidities including an increased risk of dyslipidemia (which often predisposes to cardiovascular diseases) and immune-aging. In this study, lipid profiles and antibody responses to measles and pertussis toxin vaccines were compared between ART experienced HIV+ children (n=64) aged 5-10 years, and their age- and sex-matched HIV- controls (n=47). Prevalence of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglyceride-driven dyslipidemia was higher among treated HIV+ children than in controls (51.6% vs 27.7% respectively, p < 0.019). In a multivariate Poisson regression model adjusted for age, sex and BMI, the association between low HDL-c, hypertriglyceridemia and HIV remained significa................

Published at:  2021-11-09

Depletion of Human Papilloma Virus E6- and E7-Oncoprotein-Specific T-Cell Responses in Women Living With HIV

Authors: Wilbert Mbuya1,2*, Kathrin Held2,3, Ruby D. Mcharo1, Antelmo Haule1, Jacklina Mhizde1, Jonathan Mnkai1, Anifrid Mahenge1, Maria Mwakatima1, Margareth Sembo1, Wolfram Mwalongo1, Peter Agrea1, Michael Hoelscher2,3, Leonard Maboko1,4, Elmar Saathoff2,3, Otto Geisenberger2,3, France Rwegoshora5, Liset Torres5, Richard A. Koup6, Arne Kroidl2,3, Mkunde Chachage1,2,7† and Christof Geldmacher2,3*†

Cervical cancer - caused by persistent High Risk Human Papilloma Virus (HR HPV) infections - is the second most common cancer affecting women globally. HIV infection increases the risk for HPV persistence, associated disease progression and malignant cell transformation. We therefore hypothesized that this risk increase is directly linked to HIV infection associated dysfunction or depletion of HPV-oncoprotein-specific T-cell responses.

Published at:  2021-10-25

Distinct Immune Profiles of Exhausted Effector and Memory CD8+ T Cells in Individuals With Filarial Lymphedema

Authors: Sacha Horn1†, Dennis Borrero-Wolff2,3†, Manuel Ritter2,3†, Kathrin Arndts2,3, Anna Wiszniewsky2,3, Linda Batsa Debrah4,5,6, Alexander Y. Debrah4,6,7, Jubin Osei-Mensah4,6, Mkunde Chachage1,8,9, Achim Hoerauf2,3,10, Inge Kroidl1,11*‡ and Laura E. Layland2,3,10*‡

CD8+ T cells are crucial for the clearance of viral infections, and current research begins to highlight their importance in parasitic diseases too. In-depth research about characteristics of CD8+ T-cell subsets and exhaustion remains uncertain, especially during filariasis, a chronic helminth infection. Lymphatic filariasis, elicited by Wuchereria bancrofti, remains a serious health problem in endemic areas in Ghana, especially in those suffering from morbidity due to lymphedema (LE). In this observational study, the characteristics and profiles of CD8+ T cells were compared between asymptomatic Wuchereria bancrofti-infected individuals, uninfected endemic normals, and those with LE (grades 2–6). Focusing on exha

Published at:  2021-08-11

Tanzania’s position on the COVID-19 pandemic

Authors: Sayoki G Mfinanga a d, Nicholaus P Mnyambwa a, Daniel T Minja b, Nyanda Elias Ntinginya c, Esther Ngadaya a, Julie Makani e, Abel N Makubi

In a World Report about COVID-19 vaccine use in Tanzania,1 local context was not sufficiently considered to fully understand the country's position on the COVID-19 pandemic and its use of COVID-19 vaccines. We maintain that the late President John Magufuli understood the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, which merits joint and coordinated global efforts.

Published at:  2021-04-14

Regional Variation of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Enterobacterales, Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Salmonella enterica and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Among Febrile Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Rehema Moraa Moirongo1 Eva Lorenz1,2,3 Nyanda E. Ntinginya4 Denise Dekker1,2 José Fernandes5,6 Jana Held2,5,6 Maike Lamshöft1,2 Frieder Schaumburg5,7 Chacha Mangu4 Lwitiho Sudi4 Ali Sie8 Aurelia Souares2,9 Norbert Heinrich2,10 Andreas Wieser2,10,11 Benjamin Mordmüller2,5,6,12 Ellis Owusu-Dabo13 Akim Ayola Adegnika5,6,12 Boubacar Coulibaly8 Jürgen May1,2 Daniel Eibach1,2*

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) thwarts the curative power of drugs and is a present-time global problem. We present data on antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants of bacteria the WHO has highlighted as being key antimicrobial resistance concerns in Africa, to strengthen knowledge of AMR patterns in the region.

Published at:  2020-09-25

Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among people living with HIV in Mbeya, Tanzania

Authors: Habakkuk Mwakyula Issakwisa, Gloria Reginald Mbwile, Godlove Fred Mbwanji, David Daniel Nassoro, Nyanda Elias Ntinginya & Anthony Ambikile Nsojo

Despite the significant decline in the prevalence of HIV in Tanzania, the prevalence rates in Mbeya, Iringa, and Njombe regions are higher than the national average and have remained stable for years. The current stable HIV prevalence may be driven by factors such as a high incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and high-risk behaviours. In sub-Saharan Africa, it has previously been observed that up to 50% of HIV cases were attributed to herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) among low-risk populations. Because the proportion of sexually transmitted HSV-1 is rising, it is essential to study the interaction between HSV-1 and HIV infections.

Published at:  2020-08-05

Bedaquiline, moxifloxacin, pretomanid, and pyrazinamide during the first 8 weeks of treatment of patients with drug-susceptible or drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis: a multicentre, open-label, partially randomised, phase 2b trial

Authors: Conor D Tweed MD a, Rodney Dawson MD b c, Divan A Burger PhD d, Almari Conradie MPharm e, Angela M Crook PhD a, Carl M Mendel MD f, Francesca Conradie MBBCh g, Andreas H Diacon MD h i, Nyanda E Ntinginya PhD j, Daniel E Everitt MD f, Frederick Haraka MD k, Mengchun Li MD f, Christo H van Niekerk MD e, Alphonse Okwera PhD l, Mohammed S Rassool MBChB m, Klaus Reither PhD k n, Modulakgotla A Sebe MBChB o, Suzanne Staples MPhil p, Ebrahim Variava MD q, Melvin Spigelman MD f

New anti-tuberculosis regimens that are shorter, simpler, and less toxic than those that are currently available are needed as part of the global effort to address the tuberculosis epidemic. We aimed to investigate the bactericidal activity and safety profile of combinations of bedaquiline, pretomanid, moxifloxacin, and pyrazinamide in the first 8 weeks of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. ........

Published at:  2019-11-12

Wuchereria bancrofti infection is linked to systemic activation of CD4 and CD8 T cells

Inge Kroidl ,Mkunde Chachage,Jonathan Mnkai,Anthony Nsojo,Myrna Berninghoff,Jaco J. Verweij,Lucas Maganga,Nyanda E. Ntinginya,Leonard Maboko,Petra Clowes,Michael Hoelscher,Elmar Saathoff ,Christof Geldmacher

Susceptibility to HIV has been linked to systemic CD4+ T cell activation in cohorts of seronegative individuals with high HIV-exposure risk. We recently described an increased risk of HIV transmission in individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti, the causative agent for lymphatic filariasis, in a prospective cohort study. However, the reason for this phenomenon needs further investigation.

Published at:  2019-08-19

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